Lesson 7 – Indonesian Grammar Concepts #2

Continuing the Indonesian grammar concepts from the previous post, let’s explore Indonesian sentence structures.

  1. Positive sentences

a) Verbal sentences

Indonesian and English sentence structures are quite similar. A simple sentence typically comprises a subject and a verb.

Study the two sentences below:

English: I study Indonesian language with Hesti. 

Indonesian: Saya belajar bahasa Indonesia dengan Hesti.

Comparing the two sentences, the structures are the same, aren’t they?

b) Non-verbal sentences

– A sentence with an adjective:

  • Mr. Joko is friendly. (Pak Joko ramah.)
  • Klepon and fried banana are very delicious. (Klepon dan pisang goreng sangat enak.)
  • Indonesian language is easy. (Bahasa Indonesia mudah.)

We omit the translation of auxiliary verbs (is, am, are) when adjectives describe the subject(s).

– A sentence with a noun:

  • Bali is a beautiful island. (Bali adalah sebuah pulau indah.)
  • Hesti and Candra are our friends in Indonesia. (Hesti dan Candra adalah teman kami di Indonesia.)

We use “adalah” when the object is a noun to define the subject. In informal conversations, “adalah” may be omitted, e.g., “Bali pulau indah,” “Hesti dan Candra teman kami di Indonesia.”

2. Negative Sentences

To create a negative sentence, introduce “bukan” for negating a noun and “tidak” for negating a verb, adjective, or prepositional phrase.

a) “bukan”

  • I am not a doctor. (Saya bukan dokter.)
  • That is not my coffee. (Itu bukan kopi saya.)

b) “tidak”

  • Tina does not eat meat. (Tina tidak makan daging.)
  • The hotel room is not expensive. (Kamar hotelnya tidak mahal.)
  • She is not in Jakarta. (Dia tidak di Jakarta.)

We are currently developing this website, so it is far from perfect. Our goal is to assist you in learning Bahasa Indonesia in structured lessons, offering one lesson per day. If you have any questions or wish to have 1-on-1 lessons, please contact us at magnabasa@gmail.com or on Instagram @hestiwidya

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